W. G. Abrahamson and C. P. Blair, Sequential radiation through hostrace formation: herbivore diversity leads to diversity in natural enemies, 2007.

. Pp, Specialization, speciation, and radiation: the evolutionary biology of herbivorous insects, pp.188-202

D. M. Althoff, G. P. Svensson, and O. Pellmyr, The influence of interaction type and feeding location on the phylogeographic structure of the yucca moth community associated with Hesperoyucca whipplei, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.43, issue.2, pp.398-406, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.015

C. C. Berg and J. T. Wiebes, African fig trees and fig wasps, 1992.

O. R. Bininda-emonds, Trees Versus Characters and the Supertree/Supermatrix ???Paradox???, Systematic Biology, vol.53, issue.2, pp.356-359, 2004.
DOI : 10.1080/10635150490440396

O. R. Bininda-emonds and M. J. Sanderson, Assessment of the Accuracy of Matrix Representation with Parsimony Analysis Supertree Construction, Systematic Biology, vol.50, issue.4, pp.565-579, 2001.
DOI : 10.1080/106351501750435112

A. J. Bohonak and K. Van-der-linde, RMA: software for reduced major axis regression, Java version, 2004.

Z. Boucek, A. Watsham, and J. T. Wiebes, The fig wasp fauna of the receptacles of Ficus thonningii (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea), Tijd. Voor Entomol, vol.124, pp.149-233, 1981.

J. L. Bronstein and M. Hossaert-mckey, Hurricane Andrew and a Florida Fig Pollination Mutualism: Resilience of an Obligate Interaction, Biotropica, vol.27, issue.3, pp.373-381, 1995.
DOI : 10.2307/2388922

D. Brooks, Hennig's Parasitological Method: A Proposed Solution, Systematic Zoology, vol.30, issue.3, pp.229-249, 1981.
DOI : 10.2307/2413247

D. R. Brooks and D. E. Mclennan, Extending phylogenetic studies of coevolution: secondary Brooks parsimony analysis, parasites, and the Great Apes, Cladistics, vol.3, issue.2, pp.104-119, 2003.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2003.tb00298.x

D. Bryant, A. Mckenzie, and M. Steel, The size of a maximum agreement subtree for random binary trees. Dimacs Series in Discrete Math, Theor. Comp. Science, vol.61, pp.56-65, 2003.

J. Burrows and S. Burrows, Figs of southern and south-central Africa, 2003.

B. Campbell, J. Heraty, J. Rasplus, K. Chan, J. Steffen-campbell et al., Molecular systematics of the Chalcidoidea, using 28S-D2 rDNA, Hymenoptera?evolution, biodiversity and biological control, pp.59-73, 2000.

P. Casgrain and P. Legendre, The R package for multivariate and spatial analysis, version 4.0. User's manual, 2001.

M. A. Charleston, Jungles: a new solution to the host/parasite phylogeny reconciliation problem, Mathematical Biosciences, vol.149, issue.2, pp.191-223, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0025-5564(97)10012-8

M. A. Charleston and D. L. Robertson, Preferential Host Switching by Primate Lentiviruses Can Account for Phylogenetic Similarity with the Primate Phylogeny, Systematic Biology, vol.51, issue.3, pp.528-535, 2002.
DOI : 10.1080/10635150290069940

D. Chen, O. Eulenstein, and D. Fernandez-baca, Rainbow: a toolbox for phylogenetic supertree construction and analysis, Bioinformatics, vol.20, issue.16, pp.2872-2873, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/bth313

D. H. Clayton and K. P. Johnson, LINKING COEVOLUTIONARY HISTORY TO ECOLOGICAL PROCESS: DOVES AND LICE, Evolution, vol.11, issue.10, pp.2335-2341, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/14.9.817

S. G. Compton, A collapse of host specificity in some African fig wasps. South Afr, J. Sci, vol.86, pp.39-41, 1990.

S. G. Compton and S. Van-noort, Southern African fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): resource utilization and host relationships, Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. v. Wetensch, vol.95, pp.423-435, 1992.

S. G. Compton, J. Y. Rasplus, and A. B. Ware, African fig wasps parasitoid communities, Pp, pp.323-348, 1994.

J. M. Cook and J. Rasplus, Mutualists with attitude: coevolving fig wasps and figs, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.18, issue.5, pp.241-248, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-5347(03)00062-4

J. M. Cook, A. Rokas, M. D. Pagel, and G. N. Stone, EVOLUTIONARY SHIFTS BETWEEN HOST OAK SECTIONS AND HOST-PLANT ORGANS IN ANDRICUS GALLWASPS, Evolution, vol.88, issue.3, pp.1821-1830, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/jhered/90.1.242

D. M. De-vienne, T. Giraud, and O. C. Martin, A congruence index for testing topological similarity between trees, Bioinformatics, vol.23, issue.23, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm500

P. H. Degnan, A. B. Lazarus, C. D. Brock, and J. J. Wernegreen, Host?Symbiont Stability and Fast Evolutionary Rates in an Ant?Bacterium Association: Cospeciation of Camponotus Species and Their Endosymbionts, Candidatus Blochmannia, Systematic Biology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.95-110, 2004.
DOI : 10.1080/10635150490264842

Y. Desdevises, S. Morand, O. Jousson, and P. Legendre, Coevolution between Lamellodiscus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) and Sparidae (Teleostei): The Study Of a Complex Host-Parasite System, Evolution, vol.14, issue.12, pp.2459-2471, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/0169-5347(90)90179-H

P. R. Ehrlich and P. H. Raven, Butterflies and Plants: A Study in Coevolution, Evolution, vol.18, issue.4, pp.586-608, 1964.
DOI : 10.2307/2406212

J. C. Erasmus, S. Van-noort, E. Jousselin, and J. M. Greeff, Molecular phylogeny of fig wasp pollinators (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera) of Ficus section Galoglychia Zool, Scripta, vol.36, pp.68-70, 2007.

C. R. Finden and A. D. Gordon, Obtaining common pruned trees, Journal of Classification, vol.21, issue.1, pp.255-276, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01908078

J. Galil and D. Eisikowitch, Studies ON MUTUALISTIC SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN SYCONIA AND SYCOPHILOUS WASPS IN MONOECIOUS FIGS, New Phytologist, vol.3, issue.4, pp.773-787, 1971.
DOI : 10.1002/jez.1401070207

R. Gillespie, Community Assembly Through Adaptive Radiation in Hawaiian Spiders, Science, vol.303, issue.5656, pp.356-359, 2004.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1091875

J. M. Greeff and J. W. Ferguson, Mating ecology of the nonpollinating fig wasps ofFicus ingens, Animal Behaviour, vol.57, issue.1, pp.215-222, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/anbe.1998.0954

L. Grison-pigé, M. Hossaert-mckey, J. M. Greeff, and J. Bessiere, Fig volatile compounds???a first comparative study, Phytochemistry, vol.61, issue.1, pp.61-71, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00213-3

M. S. Hafner, J. W. Demastes, T. A. Spradling, and D. L. Reed, Cophylogeny between pocket gophers and chewing lice Tangled trees: phylogeny, cospeciation and coevolution, Pp, pp.195-220, 2003.

E. R. Haine, J. Martin, and J. M. Cook, Deep mtDNA divergences indicate cryptic species in a fig-pollinating wasp, BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol.6, issue.1, p.83, 2006.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2148-6-83

J. P. Hall and D. J. Harvey, THE PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF AMAZONIA REVISITED: NEW EVIDENCE FROM RIODINID BUTTERFLIES, Evolution, vol.20, issue.7, pp.1489-1497, 2002.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.19.1.513

R. Halliburton, Introduction to population genetics, 2004.

W. D. Hamilton, Extraordinary Sex Ratios, Science, vol.156, issue.3774, pp.477-488, 1967.
DOI : 10.1126/science.156.3774.477

R. D. Harrison and J. Y. Rasplus, Dispersal of fig pollinators in Asian tropical rain forests, Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol.22, issue.06, pp.631-639, 2006.
DOI : 10.1017/S0266467406003488

B. A. Hawkins and S. G. Compton, African Fig Wasp Communities: Undersaturation and Latitudinal Gradients in Species Richness, The Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.61, issue.2, pp.361-372, 1992.
DOI : 10.2307/5328

E. A. Herre, Optimality, plasticity and selective regime in fig wasp sex ratios, Nature, vol.329, issue.6140, pp.627-629, 1987.
DOI : 10.1038/329627a0

E. A. Herre, C. A. Machado, E. Bermingham, J. D. Nason, D. M. Windsor et al., Molecular phylogenies of figs and their pollinator wasps, Journal of Biogeography, vol.98, issue.4, pp.521-530, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01975681

J. Hughes, M. Kennedy, K. P. Johnson, R. L. Palma, and R. D. Page, Multiple Cophylogenetic Analyses Reveal Frequent Cospeciation between Pelecaniform Birds and Pectinopygus Lice, Systematic Biology, vol.56, issue.2, pp.232-251, 2007.
DOI : 10.1080/10635150701311370

A. P. Jackson, Cophylogeny of the Ficus microcosm, Biological Reviews, vol.92, issue.4, pp.751-768, 2004.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.es.10.110179.000245

N. Janz and S. Nylin, Butterflies and Plants: A Phylogenetic Study, Evolution, vol.52, issue.2, pp.486-502, 1998.
DOI : 10.2307/2411084

D. H. Janzen, How to be a Fig, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol.10, issue.1, pp.13-51, 1979.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.es.10.110179.000305

K. P. Johnson and D. H. Clayton, Coevolutionary history of ecological replicates: comparing phylogenies of wing and body lice to columbiform hosts Tangled trees: phylogeny, cospeciation, and coevolution, Pp, pp.262-286, 2003.

K. J. Joseph, The biology of Phylotrypesis caricae L., parasite of Blastophaga psenes L. (Chalcidoidea Parasitic Hymenoptera), Proc. XVth Int. Congr. Zool, pp.662-664, 1958.

E. Jousselin, M. Hossaert-mckey, E. A. Herre, and F. Kjellberg, Why do fig wasps actively pollinate monoecious figs?, Oecologia, vol.23, issue.3, pp.381-387, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00442-002-1116-0

E. Jousselin, J. Y. Rasplus, and F. Kjellberg, CONVERGENCE AND COEVOLUTION IN A MUTUALISM: EVIDENCE FROM A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF FICUS, Evolution, vol.94, issue.6, pp.1255-1269, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01529.x

E. Jousselin, S. Van-noort, and J. M. Greeff, Labile male morphology and intraspecific male polymorphism in the Philotrypesis fig wasps, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.33, issue.3, pp.706-718, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ympev.2004.08.008

E. Jousselin, S. Van-noort, J. Y. Rasplus, and J. M. Greeff, Patterns of diversification of Afrotropical Otiteselline fig waSPS: phylogenetic study reveals a double radiation across host figs and conservatism of host association, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.32, issue.1, pp.253-266, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00178-7

C. Kerdelhué, J. P. Rossi, and J. Rasplus, COMPARATIVE COMMUNITY ECOLOGY STUDIES ON OLD WORLD FIGS AND FIG WASPS, Ecology, vol.81, issue.10, pp.2832-2849, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00377198

G. J. Kergoat, N. Alvarez, M. Hossaert-mckey, N. Faure, and J. F. Silvain, Parallels in the evolution of the two largest New and Old World seed-beetle genera (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), Molecular Ecology, vol.31, issue.13, pp.4003-4021, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02702.x

DOI : 10.1016/0169-5347(96)10031-8

F. Lapointe and L. J. Rissler, Congruence, Consensus, and the Comparative Phylogeography of Codistributed Species in California, The American Naturalist, vol.166, issue.2, pp.290-299, 2005.
DOI : 10.1086/431283

P. Legendre, Y. Desdevises, and E. Bazin, A Statistical Test for Host-Parasite Coevolution, Systematic Biology, vol.51, issue.2, pp.217-234, 2002.
DOI : 10.1080/10635150252899734

J. E. Light and M. S. Hafner, Cophylogeny and disparate rates of evolution in sympatric lineages of chewing lice on pocket gophers, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.45, issue.3, pp.997-1013, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.001

C. Lopez-vaamonde, J. Rasplus, G. D. Weiblen, and J. M. Cook, Molecular Phylogenies of Fig Wasps: Partial Cocladogenesis of Pollinators and Parasites, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.21, issue.1, pp.55-71, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/mpev.2001.0993

C. Lopez-vaamonde, H. C. Godfray, and J. M. Cook, EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS OF HOST-PLANT USE IN A GENUS OF LEAF-MINING MOTHS, Evolution, vol.74, issue.8, pp.1804-1821, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00467.x

C. Lopez-vaamonde, H. C. Godfray, S. West, C. Hansson, and J. M. Cook, The evolution of host use and unusual reproductive strategies in Achrysocharoides parasitoid wasps, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.109, issue.4, pp.1029-1041, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00178256

J. B. Losos, Phylogenetic Perspectives on Community Ecology, Ecology, vol.77, issue.5, pp.1344-1354, 1996.
DOI : 10.2307/2265532

C. A. Machado, E. A. Herre, S. S. Maccafferty, and E. Bermingham, Molecular phylogenies of fig pollinating and non-pollinating wasps and the implications for the origin and evolution of the fig-fig wasp mutualism, Journal of Biogeography, vol.98, issue.4, pp.531-542, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/1055-7903(92)90013-7

C. A. Machado, E. Jousselin, F. Kjellberg, S. G. Compton, and E. A. Herre, Phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography and character evolution of fig-pollinating wasps, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.268, issue.1468, pp.685-694, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2000.1418

C. A. Machado, N. Robbins, M. T. Gilbert, and E. A. Herre, Critical review of host specificity and its coevolutionary implications in the fig/fig-wasp mutualism, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, pp.6558-6565, 2005.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0501840102

W. A. Marussich and C. A. Machado, Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and nonpollinating New World fig wasps, Molecular Ecology, vol.60, issue.9, pp.1925-1946, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03278.x

M. J. Mcleish, B. J. Crespi, T. W. Chapman, and M. P. Schwarz, Parallel diversification of Australian gall-thrips on Acacia, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.43, issue.3, pp.714-725, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.03.007

D. Molbo, C. A. Machado, J. G. Sevenster, and E. A. Herre, Cryptic species of fig-pollinating wasps: Implications for the evolution of the fig-wasp mutualism, sex allocation, and precision of adaptation, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, pp.5867-5872, 2003.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0930903100

A. P. Moller and J. J. Cuervo, Sexual selection, germline mutation rate and sperm competition, BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol.3, issue.1, p.6, 2003.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2148-3-6

M. G. Murray, Comparative morphology and mate competition of flightless male fig wasps, Animal Behaviour, vol.39, issue.3, pp.434-443, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80406-3

J. D. Nason, E. A. Herre, and J. L. Hamrick, The breeding structure of a tropical keystone plant resource, Nature, vol.391, pp.985-687, 1998.

R. D. Page, Temporal Congruence Revisited: Comparison of Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Divergence in Cospeciating Pocket Gophers and their Chewing Lice, Systematic Biology, vol.45, issue.2, pp.151-167, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/sysbio/45.2.151

R. D. Page, Temporal Congruence and Cladistic Analysis of Biogeogrphy and Cospeciation, Systematic Zoology, vol.39, issue.3, pp.205-226, 1990.
DOI : 10.2307/2992182

A. M. Paterson and J. Banks, Analytical approaches to measuring cospeciation of host and parasites: through a glass, darkly, International Journal for Parasitology, vol.31, issue.9, pp.1012-1022, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0020-7519(01)00199-0

D. Posada and K. A. Crandall, MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution, Bioinformatics, vol.14, issue.9, pp.817-818, 1998.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/14.9.817

D. M. Percy, R. D. Page, and Q. C. Cronk, Plant?Insect Interactions: Double-Dating Associated Insect and Plant Lineages Reveals Asynchronous Radiations, Systematic Biology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.120-127, 2004.
DOI : 10.1080/10635150490264996

L. Racheli, The nightmare of the combination: comments on matrix representation with parsimony and its first application in biogeography, Cladistics, vol.30, issue.2, pp.208-211, 2004.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.19.1.513

A. Rambault and M. Charleston, TreeEdit: phylogenetic tree editor version 1. Univ, 2001.

B. Rannala, J. P. Huelsenbeck, Z. Yang, and R. Nielsen, Taxon Sampling and the Accuracy of Large Phylogenies, Systematic Biology, vol.47, issue.4, pp.702-710, 1998.
DOI : 10.1080/106351598260680

J. Y. Rasplus, C. Kerdelhue, I. Leclainche, and G. Mondor, Molecular phylogeny of fig wasps Agaonidae are not monophyletic, Comptes Rendus de l'Acad??mie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie, vol.321, issue.6, pp.517-527, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0764-4469(98)80784-1

N. Rønsted, G. Salvo, and V. Savolainen, Biogeographical and phylogenetic origins of African fig species (Ficus section Galoglychia), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.43, issue.1, pp.190-201, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.12.010

N. Rønsted, G. D. Weiblen, J. M. Cook, N. Salamin, C. A. Machado et al., 60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.11, issue.8, pp.2593-2599, 2005.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01529.x

N. Salamin, T. R. Hodkinson, and V. Savolainen, Building Supertrees: An Empirical Assessment Using the Grass Family (Poaceae), Systematic Biology, vol.51, issue.1, pp.112-126, 2002.
DOI : 10.1080/106351502753475916

J. D. Shorthouse, D. Wool, and A. Raman, Gall-inducing insects ??? Nature's most sophisticated herbivores, Basic and Applied Ecology, vol.6, issue.5, pp.407-411, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.baae.2005.07.001

A. I. Silvieus, W. L. Clement, and G. D. Weiblen, Cophylogeny of figs, pollinators, gallers and parasitoids The evolutionary biology of herbivorous insects: specialization, speciation and radiation, Pp, pp.225-239, 2008.

R. Sokal and F. J. Rohlf, Biometry: the principles and practices of statistics in biological research, 1995.

P. R. Stephens and J. J. Wiens, Convergence, Divergence, and Homogenization in the Ecological Structure of Emydid Turtle Communities: The Effects of Phylogeny and Dispersal, The American Naturalist, vol.164, issue.2, pp.244-254, 2004.
DOI : 10.1086/422342

D. Swofford, PAUP * : phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and Other Methods) 4.0 Beta, 2002.

S. Van-noort and S. G. Compton, Two new species of Otitesella (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Ficus burtt-davyi, Proc. Koninklijke Nederl. Akad. Wetens. (C), vol.91, pp.419-427, 1988.

S. L. Vincent, Polymorphism and fighting in male fig wasps. Thesis, 1991.

A. B. Ware, P. T. Kaye, S. G. Compton, and S. Van-noort, Fig volatiles: Their role in attracting pollinators and maintaining pollinator specificity, Plant Systematics and Evolution, vol.93, issue.3-4, pp.147-156, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00940794

G. D. Weiblen, Phylogenetic Relationships of Fig Wasps Pollinating Functionally Dioecious Ficus Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequences and Morphology, Systematic Biology, vol.50, issue.2, pp.1-25, 2001.
DOI : 10.1093/sysbio/50.2.243

G. D. Weiblen and G. L. Bush, Speciation in fig pollinators and parasites, Molecular Ecology, vol.87, issue.8, pp.1573-1578, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/35054057

G. D. Weiblen, C. O. Webb, V. Novotny, Y. Basset, and S. E. Miller, PHYLOGENETIC DISPERSION OF HOST USE IN A TROPICAL INSECT HERBIVORE COMMUNITY, Ecology, vol.87, issue.sp7, pp.62-75, 2006.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01529.x

S. A. West, E. A. Herre, D. M. Windsor, and P. R. Green, The ecology and evolution of the New World non-pollinating fig wasp communities, Journal of Biogeography, vol.89, issue.4, pp.447-458, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01975681

D. Y. Zhang, K. Lin, and I. Hanski, Coexistence of cryptic species, Ecology Letters, vol.177, issue.3, pp.165-169, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00569.x

D. J. Zwickl and D. M. Hillis, Increased Taxon Sampling Greatly Reduces Phylogenetic Error, Systematic Biology, vol.51, issue.4, pp.588-598, 2002.
DOI : 10.1080/10635150290102339