Understanding Electromigration in Cu-CNT Composite Interconnects: A Multiscale Electrothermal Simulation Study

Abstract : In this paper, we report a hierarchical simulation study on the electromigration problem in Cu-CNT composite interconnects. Our work is based on the investigation of the activation energy and self-heating temperature using a multiscale electro-thermal simulation framework. We first investigate the electrical and thermal properties of Cu-CNT composites including contact resistances using the Density Functional Theory and Reactive Force Field approaches, respectively. The corresponding results are employed in macroscopic electro-thermal simulations taking into account the self-heating phenomenon. Our simulations show that although Cu atoms have similar activation energies in both bulk Cu and Cu-CNT composites, Cu-CNT composite interconnects are more resistant to electromigration thanks to the large Lorenz number of the CNTs. Moreover, we found that a large and homogenous conductivity along the transport direction in interconnects is one of the most important design rules to minimize the electromigration.
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Jaehyun Lee, Salim Berrada, Fikru Adamu-Lema, Nicole Nagy, Vihar P. Georgiev, et al.. Understanding Electromigration in Cu-CNT Composite Interconnects: A Multiscale Electrothermal Simulation Study. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2018, 65 (9), pp.3884-3892. ⟨10.1109/TED.2018.2853550⟩. ⟨lirmm-01867729⟩

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