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Une approche basée sur les préférences et les méta-heuristiques pour améliorer l’accessibilité des pages Web pour les personnes déficientes visuelles

Abstract : When the sight, which is the main communication way, is altered, then the information acquisition process is also modified, degraded or limited. In today's digital world, the Web is a wealth of information organized by designers and developers and available on different Websites. Many visual pathologies can lead to difficulties in accessing this information. Beyond this information, the access to the different tools and services is also affected. Difficulties in color perception, cloud-like white patches or dark areas in a visual field, or a reduced visual field are all sources of difficulties. Each person has a particular vision. Several persons with the same pathology may even have different visions. Several assistive tools have been proposed that apply visual adaptation, trying to meet the needs of people with low vision. Main limits of these tools are mainly the unability of taking into account the very specific needs of each person. These research works are focused on the real user's needs analysis and on making a new approach based on the personal user's preferences. The final target consists in automatizing the Web page transformation according to the specific preferences of a particular user. This transformation occurs along the navigation from page to page. Different algorithms have been used, especially evolutionary algorithms, in order to make tradeoffs between the user's preferences and the original appearance of the page. The thesis further develops main problems encountered by people with low vision and some notions on color models and contrast relations. After that, we present a preference modeling language based on logics, a modeling of the problem as an optimization problem, some resolution algorithms, a tool and experiments on several real Web pages.
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https://hal-lirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/tel-01312294
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Yoann Bonavero. Une approche basée sur les préférences et les méta-heuristiques pour améliorer l’accessibilité des pages Web pour les personnes déficientes visuelles. Algorithme et structure de données [cs.DS]. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS274⟩. ⟨tel-01312294v2⟩

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