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On-line Coordination in Complex Goal-directed Movements: a Matter of Interactions between Several Loops.

Lilian Fautrelle 1 François Bonnetblanc 1, 2, *
* Corresponding author
2 DEMAR - Artificial movement and gait restoration
LIRMM - Laboratoire d'Informatique de Robotique et de Microélectronique de Montpellier, CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée
Abstract : Motor flexibility is the ability to rapidly modify behavior when unexpected perturbations occur. In goal directed movements, this process may be involved during the motor execution itself, by using on-line motor corrections, or off-line, on a trial-by-trial basis. A consensus has emerged to describe and unify these two dependant processes within the framework of the internal models theory in which the cerebellum is involved in error processing. However, this general framework may be incomplete to describe on-line motor corrections when complex motor coordination is involved in the task. In particular, interaction torques existing between different effectors limit the independence between different controllers that could be considered to control various body parts. In addition, recent findings suggest that different (sub)-cortical loops may be involved during orienting responses to visual stimuli but also during on-line motor corrections following visual perturbations. The way these different loops with different dynamics interact but achieve the same motor goal is an important problem in motor control. The simplest organization may be sequential, as in the well-known stretch reflex. This implies that during on-line corrections, the nervous system may be involved in a distributed fashion and that motor plans and synergies depend both on anatomical and temporal constraints. More particularly, motor plans and synergies may be stored and may differ according to the (sub)-cortical loops involved during the whole on-line correction process. Finally, questions concerning the independence (or not) of these loops remain unanswered. The case of strict independence would mean that between the various corrective loops, (i) error processing and (ii) motor plans/synergies would be different. By contrast, in a situation of dependency, it would probably mean that interactions would link lower (and faster) to upper (and longer) loops by informing these latter of the motor corrections sent by the former, similarly to an efference copy.
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Lilian Fautrelle, François Bonnetblanc. On-line Coordination in Complex Goal-directed Movements: a Matter of Interactions between Several Loops.. Brain Research Bulletin, Elsevier, 2012, 89 (1), pp.57-64. ⟨10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.07.005⟩. ⟨lirmm-00805182⟩

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